Thursday, July 5, 2012

Arousing Interests of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Tanzania

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Basic Assumptions
Motivating young citizen to come to be more concerned in science subjects in Tanzania raised the consider since the government decided to exercise authority in schooling sector at take-off independence. The driving un-implemented strategies are restructuring schooling into learner-centered approach, enhancing curricular materials and ensuring teaching and instructional personnel. There is no way to a singular system to govern this paper rather than eclectic coming being employed to help to draw-in prominent philosophical notion to the intended perspective.

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The theories adopted in guiding this paper therefore are observed in how motivation can be employed in arousing learners' interest in science subjects. The theories contain motivation as propounded by prominent behaviorist Abraham Maslow, learning system by prominent constructivist paradigm along with Piaget and Vygotsky and the system of group cognition by its prominent proponent Albert Bandura.

As Maslow (1954) says, "If we are concerned in what legitimately motivates us and not what has or will, or might motivate us, then a satisfied need is not a motivator." according to him and to other discrete theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize corporeal pain and maximize pleasure, or it may contain specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or avoiding mortality. Motivation is of singular interest to Educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in trainee learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of schooling differs qualitatively from the more normal forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Motivation in schooling can have any effects on how students learn and how they behave towards branch matter as for science subjects in our case. It can direct behavior toward singular goals; Lead to increased endeavor and energy; growth initiation of, and persistence in, activities; improve cognitive processing; conclude what consequences are reinforcing and; Lead to improved performance. Because students are not all the time internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.

There are two kinds of motivation: firstly, intrinsic motivation which occurs when citizen are internally motivated to do something because it whether brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant, and secondly extrinsic motivation which comes into play when a trainee is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her like money or good grades (Wikipedia, 2008). Young citizen can be motivated to perform science subjects as pleasure when they are supplied with quality, enough materials and enough facilitating situation straight through competition, science clubs, and any other situations where awards and prizes are in case,granted for best achievers. Externally successfully scientists and best students in science subjects can be invited in science celebrations and exhibitions to demonstrate their achievements.

There are cognitive views of motivation by constructivists which stress that human behavior is influenced by the way citizen think about themselves and their environment. The direction that behavior takes can be explained by four influences which include; the possible need to form an organized and logically consistent knowledge base; one's expectations for successfully completing a task; the factors that one believes catalogue for success and failure; and one's beliefs about the nature of cognitive capability (Biehler/Snowman, 1997). The impact of cognitive amelioration view is based on Jean Piaget's system of equilibration, assimilation, accommodation, and schema formation. Piaget proposes that children possess an possible desire to pronounce a sense of society and equilibrium in their notion of the world (equilibration). A sense of equilibration may be experienced if a child assimilates a new caress by relating it to an existing scheme, or the child may adapt by modifying an existing project if the new caress is too different. In our case then love of science can be build to young citizen since their childhood straight through directing and provision of simpler experiments and observations on discrete matters and organisms.

In addition, individuals will repeatedly use new schemes because of an possible desire to master their environment. This explains why young children can, with no loss of enthusiasm, sing the same song, tell the same story, and play the same game over and over and why they repeatedly open and shut doors to rooms and cupboards with no seeming purpose. It also explains why older children take great pleasure in collecting and organizing almost all things they can get their hands on and why adolescents who have begun to attain formal operational reasoning will argue incessantly about all the unfairness in the world and how it can be eliminated (Stipek, 1993). This allows the room for these habits to be turned into science learning and consideration interests.

Social cognition system proposes reciprocal estimation as a traditional factor in both learning and motivation. In this view, the environment, an individual's behavior, and the individual's characteristics (e.g., knowledge, emotions, and cognitive development) both work on and are influenced by each other two components. Bandura (1986, 1997) highlights self-efficacy (the belief that a singular activity say for science [as our case goals], is possible and that the individual can perform it) and self-regulation (the establishment of goals, the amelioration of a plan to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of reflection and modification or redirection.

Education procedure Implementation
The first strategy is to deal with the procedure efficient implementation. Tanzania schooling procedure (Education and Training procedure - Etp) highlights on: entrance that encompass participation, gender and equity issues; capability in internal efficiency, relevance and external effectiveness; and management includes governance, decentralization and reserved supply management. It is one of the best policies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ssa) as pointed by World Bank (2005); with well established strategic plans but had not yet been able to be implemented effectively.

Woods (2007) pointed out that the schooling system of Tanzania has made commendable expand in the period since 2000, especially in the introduction of free traditional education, in steps taken to broaden entrance to secondary, and in the introduction of competence based curricula at traditional and secondary levels. However, there are still challenges to improve system carrying out in terms of inclusion, repetition and completion at traditional level, and to expand chance at secondary from the previously very low base. Pre-service and in-service training have lacked the critical coherence with each other and with the demands of changes in the system, especially of curriculum and pedagogy in enhancing science and technology. singular attentiveness needs to be paid to equity and strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programs. These need to be pursued vigorously and implemented fully. A prioritized strategy for capacity construction is required for these and all other major dimensions (World Bank, 2005). In this case there is no question with the policy; the question is in the implementation.

Motivating Teaching Personnel
In enabling the Ministry to meet the goals the examine of teachers concern should be addressed as the second strategy as the prominent activities to motivate teaching resource. Teaching reserved supply elsewhere plays the big role in ensuring maximum success in schooling arena. Recognizing the unique motivational styles can also help to identify the types of educational products and problems that will satisfy respective needs (Tough, 1979). So, teachers' in-service training, teaching environment nourishment, reasonable payments and retain/recognition are prominent factors.

Learners are motivated by teachers so teachers should be motivated in order to forward it to learners. Apart from enough pre-service and in-service training, capacity construction and refresher courses provision; the availability of required teaching and learning materials in one hand build teachers' morale and motivate them. Struggle in finding teaching-learning for themselves, shortage of books and other supportive materials de-motivate teachers and encourage insufficient teaching and rote learning. Ibid (1979) view that person can get legitimately distracted from the task at hand and come to be more motivated to do something else possibly not on task.

Teachers need laboratory with recommended equipments to prepare and demonstrate practical and laboratory technician an assistant. In the past when schools were few, a science teacher needed to have a laboratory to work in and there were also a laboratory technician to work together (Guardian, 2009). Laboratory is compulsory for science subjects; there is no way, without their availability. But these days in some schools even science teachers do not have laboratories to show the way experiments and there is no laboratory technician to help the teacher.

Teaching environment improvements contain housing water and sanitation. Study has shown that many teachers do not have houses, and those who do live in houses that are often in serious need of fix and most schools are in very poor corporeal environment. The challenges of school revision in rural areas are linked with the presence of teachers, but many rural schools in Tanzania like other countries "serve disadvantaged populations, have great difficulty attracting and retaining remarkable teachers and have management systems poorly adapted to their small size"(Adea, 2006)

Pay reform to enough wages in the other hand conclude psychological and corporeal unrest of teachers and motivate them combine in their work accordingly. Teachers' low cost is a burning issue and recently caused periodic strikes. In most of developing countries along with Tanzania, teachers' wages were considerably below the level critical to ensure their enough motivation (Fry, 2003). The government should revise teachers' pay reform and come up with solution otherwise scholastic fraud might emerge or persist. When teachers sell grades or require students to pay for incommunicable tutoring, most observers identify it as corruption. But it is tolerated because everybody understands that it is critical to survive (Fontana, 2008). Their practices may be interpreted by some as a reasonable adaptive response to a difficult situation. In some instances it is even tolerated by government, which sees it as the only way to pronounce the whole of teachers and the capability of teaching.

There is a need to train and preserve enough teachers. learning is a process of interaction in the middle of teachers and students as they both participate in the learning process, but with more weight given to teachers to show the way, for recommended whole of learners in the class. learning achievements can generally "be considered in classroom by motivated teachers who plan for teaching, put into convention what they have learned" (Adea, 2006). But teachers' motivation is critically ignored factor in all levels of procedure choices along with crowded classes (Ndawi, 1997). Motivation of teachers helps to preserve them at their work places and it includes "materials and psychological needs" as pay on its own does not growth motivation among teachers; however pecuniary motives are likely to be dominant among teachers in less industrialized countries. In Ssa, teachers' motivation is low and it has been detrimental to the capability of education" (Fry, 2003).

Learners Motivation
In motivating learners, as the third strategy, emphasis should be applied in approaches such as demonstration, case study and question based learning. Their introduction or if have been introduced, could aim at addition the students' interests in learning science subjects. Also a useful method of notion mapping would be given for assessment, particularly for the amelioration of the students' self-directed learning skills and lifelong learning skills.

Demonstration as one of the approaches is very useful in arousing interest. according to Lagowski (1990) students preserve 10% of what they read, 26% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what they say, and 90% of something they say as they do something. So if teachers show as many demonstrations as they can to the students as well as letting the students do demonstrations by themselves, students will learn more actively and effectively. Students also need more certain and realistic demonstrations of the scope and limitations of science and scientists.

Science historical stories are one of the methods which can be used elsewhere even in remote areas and is costless. according to Huo (2006) the amelioration of science and technology can not be separated from the contributions of past scientists. The science stories will inspire students to overcome the difficulties and to gain success. So giving the relevant story will spark the students' inner-motivation. Only with inner-motivation will the students show their initiative and creative abilities in their learning and working processes. For instance 'Newton becomes a professor at the age of 25 years in Glasgow University and lately he formulated the law of gravitational force'.

Multimedia technology coming can be applied in areas where it allows. Although it is high-priced and it requires power availability for schools that can afford is also recommended. With the amelioration of computer technology multimedia methods are been increasingly used in teaching practice. A multimedia procedure can combine sound and pictures with knowledge. This reinforces the fact that students preserve 50% of what they see and hear, as the use of multimedia technology gives students more information than just writing on the blackboard, and growth the chance of active learning (ibid). But on the other hand it can also makes a more boring lecture for the students, if too much useless information is given or if, when using the projector, the light in the classroom is too dim. To avoid these disadvantages the teacher can combine it with other strategies and gives students more chance to think and ask questions.

Case study is an additional one tantalizing teaching-learning coming and also costless. Science is very relevant to our real life. It would be worthwhile to find some real cases before the teacher gives a lecture. When students find that what they will learn is useful to the society, they will be active learners (Lagowski, 1990). Case studies are capable of being delivered with a range of styles, they can be designed to complement (not replace) other teaching approaches, and focus on re-visiting topics rather than attempting to cover an entire syllabus. In addition, the contexts and delivery styles can be excellent in order to be stimulating. It is crucial, therefore, to feature the significance of science and its relevance to students' lives.

Problem-based learning (Pbl) is a pedagogical coming based on new advances in cognitive science Study on human learning (Barrows, 1985). Pbl has been widely used in undergraduate settings in Western countries but there is very small published on the application of Pbl in science schooling in developing countries like Tanzania. A Pbl class is organized around collaborative question solving activities that contribute a context for learning and discovery. The responsibility for learning is with the student; not with the facilitator. There are five well-defined stages in the Pbl process: introduction, inquiry, self-directed study, revisiting the hypotheses, and self-evaluation (Ram 1999). This coming can be introduced in higher learning institutions although it is expensive, its return to schooling is more important.

Research shows that students do not like examinations and if their mark is low it may cut their belief to continue learning. It also can not reflect all the problems and may not show the abilities that the students have gained (Huo, 2006). It is preferable to find other methods to supplement examinations. notion mapping is an alternative method: it can show the teacher how much the students knew and how much they didn't know; and the students can compare their own learning. I don't recommend examinations to be eliminated wholly but they can be reduced in whole in levels of education. Elimination of National proper Iv Exam in traditional school level and National Form Ii Exam in O-level is the exact instance. notion mapping was industrialized by Professor Joseph D. Novak at Cornell University in the 1960s. The notion map is a knowledge representation tool in the form of a graph.

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